memory leaks and inefficient memory while you're debugging with the
debugger-integrated Memory Usage diagnostic tool. The Memory
Usage tool lets you take one or more snapshots of the managed
and native memory heap to help understand the memory usage impact of object
types. You can also analyze memory usage without a debugger attached or by
targeting a running app. For more information, see Run profiling tools with or without the debugger.
you can collect memory snapshots at any time in the Memory Usage tool,
you can use the Visual Studio debugger to control how your application executes
while investigating performance issues. Setting breakpoints, stepping, Break
All, and other debugger actions can help you focus your performance
investigations on the code paths that are most relevant. Performing those
actions while your app is running can eliminate the noise from the code that
doesn't interest you and can significantly reduce the amount of time it takes
you to diagnose an issue.
debugger-integrated Diagnostics Tools are supported for .NET development in
Visual Studio, including ASP.NET, ASP.NET Core, native/C++ development, and
mixed mode (.NET and native) apps. Windows 8 and later is required to run
profiling tools with the debugger (Diagnostic Tools window).
this tutorial, you will:
· Take snapshots of memory
· Analyze memory usage data
Usage does not give you the data that you need, other profiling tools
in the Performance Profiler provide different kinds
of information that might be helpful to you. In many cases, the performance
bottleneck of your application may be caused by something other than your
memory, such as CPU, rendering UI, or network request time.
Support The native
memory profiler works by collecting allocation ETW event data emitted during run time.
Allocators in the CRT and Windows SDK have been annotated at the source level
so that their allocation data can be captured. If you are writing your own
allocators, then any functions that return a pointer to newly allocated heap
memory can be decorated with __declspec(allocator), as seen in this
example for myMalloc:
__declspec(allocator) void* myMalloc(size_t size)
Collect memory usage data
1. Open the project you want to debug in Visual
Studio and set a breakpoint in your app at the point where you want to begin
examining memory usage.
If you have an area where you suspect a memory issue, set the first
breakpoint before the memory issue occurs.
Because it can be challenging to capture the memory profile of
an operation that interests you when your app frequently allocates and
de-allocates memory, set breakpoints at the start and end of the operation (or
step through the operation) to find the exact point that memory changed.
2. Set a second breakpoint at the end of the
function or region of code that you want to analyze (or after a suspected
memory issue occurs).
3. The Diagnostic Tools window
appears automatically unless you have turned it off. To bring up the window
again, click Debug > Windows > Show
4. Choose Memory Usage with
the Select Tools setting on the toolbar.
5. Click Debug / Start Debugging (or Start on
the toolbar, or F5).
When the app finishes loading, the Summary view of the
Diagnostics Tools appears.
Because collecting memory data can affect the debugging
performance of your native or mixed-mode apps, memory snapshots are disabled by
default. To enable snapshots in native or mixed-mode apps, start a debugging
session (Shortcut key: F5). When the Diagnostic Tools window
appears, choose the Memory Usage tab, and then choose Heap
Stop (Shortcut key: Shift+F5) and restart
6. To take a snapshot at the start of your
debugging session, choose Take snapshot on the Memory
Usage summary toolbar. (It may help to set a breakpoint here as well.)
To create a baseline for memory comparisons, consider taking a
snapshot at the start of your debugging session.
7. Run the scenario that will cause your first
breakpoint to be hit.
8. While the debugger is paused at the first
breakpoint, choose Take snapshot on the Memory Usage summary
9. Press F5 to run the app to
your second breakpoint.
10. Now, take another snapshot.
At this point, you can begin to analyze the data.
Analyze memory usage data
rows of Memory Usage summary table lists the snapshots that you have taken
during the debugging session and provides links to more detailed views.
name of the columns depend on the debugging mode you choose in the project
properties: .NET, native, or mixed (both .NET and native).
(Diff) and Allocations (Diff) columns display the
number of objects in .NET and native memory when the snapshot was taken.
The Heap Size
(Diff) column displays the number of bytes in the .NET and native
you have taken multiple snapshots, the cells of the summary table include the
change in the value between the row snapshot and the previous snapshot.
analyze memory usage, click one of the links that opens up a detailed report of
To view details of the
difference between the current snapshot and the previous snapshot, choose the
change link to the left of the arrow (). A
red arrow indicates an increase in memory usage, and a green arrow to indicates
To help identify
memory issues more quickly, the diff reports are sorted by object types that
increased the most in overall number (click the change link in Objects
(Diff) column) or that increased the most in overall heap size (click
the change link in Heap Size (Diff) column).
To view details of
only the selected snapshot, click the non-change link.
The report appears in a separate window.
Managed types reports
the current link of a Objects (Diff) or Allocations
(Diff) cell in the Memory Usage summary table.
top pane shows the count and size of the types in the snapshot, including the
size of all objects that are referenced by the type (Inclusive Size).
to Root tree in the bottom pane displays the objects that reference
the type selected in the upper pane. The .NET garbage collector cleans up the
memory for an object only when the last type that references it has been
Objects tree displays the references that are held by the type selected
in the upper pane.
display the instances of a selected type in the upper pane, choose the icon.
The Instances view
displays the instances of the selected object in the snapshot in the upper
pane. The Paths to Root and Referenced Objects pane
displays the objects that reference the selected instance and the types that
the selected instance references. When the debugger is stopped at the point
where the snapshot was taken, you can hover over the Value cell
to display the values of the object in a tool tip.
Native type reports
the current link of a Allocations (Diff) or Heap Size
(Diff) cell in the Memory Usage summary table of the Diagnostic
View displays the number and size of the types in the snapshot.
Choose the instances
icon () of a selected type to display information
about the objects of the selected type in the snapshot.
The Instances view displays each instance of
the selected type. Selecting an instance displays the call stack that resulted
in the creation of the instance in the Allocation Call Stack pane.
View in the View Mode list to see the allocation
stack for the selected type.
Change (Diff) reports
Choose the change link
in a cell of the summary table of the Memory Usage tab on
the Diagnostic Tools window.
Choose a snapshot in
the Compare To list of a managed or native report.
change report adds columns (marked with (Diff)) to the base report
that show the difference between the base snapshot value and the comparison snapshot.
Here's how a Native Type View diff report might look: